The Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing system is an internal system in use by its founder, Toyota Motor Corporation, but it has taken on a new look. Toyota Production System, Second Edition systematically describes the changes that have occurred to the most efficient production system in use today. Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 1983, Toyota has integrated JIT with computer integrated manufacturing technology and a strategic informa- tion system. The JIT goal of producing the necessary items in the necessary quantity at the necessary time is an internal driver of production and operations management. The addition of computer integrated technology (including expert systems by artificial intelligence) and information systems technology serve to further reduce costs, increase quality, and improve lead time. The new Toyota production system considers how to adapt production schedules to the demand changes in the marketplace while satisfying the goals of low cost, high quality, and timely delivery. The first edition of this book, Toyota Production System, published in 1983, is the basis for this book. It was translated into many languages including Spanish, Russian, Italian, Japanese, etc., and has played a definite role in inspiring production management systems throughout the world.